Turmeric for mood, inflammation, and stress
by R. Aiken MD PhD @rcaiken
Turmeric is a spice with perhaps the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of any culinary spice – or herb. One active component of turmeric is curcumin (the pigment responsible for the bright yellow color of the spice), which may have natural antidepressant qualities and has been shown to protect neurons from the damaging effects of chronic stress.
The beneficial effects of curcumin in the pathophysiology of major depression are probably related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, inhibition of monoamine oxidase, and modulation of neurotrophic factors and hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.
In a randomized controlled trial , a comparable efficacy was obtained after curcumin monotherapy (1000 mg/day) compared to fluoxetine monotherapy. Supplementation of conventional antidepressants with curcumin (1000 mg/ day) has shown to be an effective and safe enhancement.
Meta-analysis of data from the six clinical trials revealed a significant reduction in major depressive symptoms following the administration of curcumin in combination with piperdine (see below). These studies all used the 1000 mg/ day and the anti-depressant effect was best after a duration of six weeks.
Turmeric suppresses pain and inflammation similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatories but without the potential side effects. The health benefits derive, as for Rhodiola and Maca, from “xenohormesis” – a biological principle that explains why environmentally stressed plants produce bioactive compounds that can confer stress resistance and survival benefits to animals that consume them (see Chapter 6).
Turmeric contains about 2% by weight curcumin, so a tablespoon of turmeric (6.8 grams) contains about 136 mg of curcumin. To get 1000 mg/ day curcumin from raw turmeric would then require more than seven tablespoons. Supplements that purport to contain 500 mg curcumin are commercially available.
One tablespoon of turmeric (1000 mg) per day with a pinch or two of ground pepper (see below) is recommended. If you grate the turmeric root yourself, be prepared to wear gloves as the color is so intense you will have yellow finger tips otherwise.
 Kulkarni, S. K., Bhutani, M. K., & Bishnoi, M. (2008). Antidepressant activity of curcumin: Involvement of serotonin and dopamine system. Psychopharmacology, 201(3), 435-442. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1300-y.
 Liu, D., Wang, Z., Gao, Z., Xie, K., Zhang, Q., Jiang, H., & Pang, Q. (2014). Effects of curcumin on learning and memory deficits, BDNF, and ERK protein expression in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress. Behavioural Brain Research, 271, 116-121. doi:10.1016/ j.bbr.2014.05.068.
 Sanmukhani, J., Satodia, V., Trivedi, J., Patel, T., Tiwari, D., Panchal, B., . . . Tripathi, C. B. (2013). Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 28(4), 579-585. doi:10.1002/ptr.5025.
 Yu, J., Pei, L., Zhang, Y., Wen, Z., & Yang, J. (2015). Chronic Supplementation of Curcumin Enhances the Efficacy of Antidepressants in Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1. doi:10.1097/jcp.0000000000000352.
 Al-Karawi, D., Mamoori, D. A., & Tayyar, Y. (2015). The Role of Curcumin Administration in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Mini Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Phytother. Res. Phytotherapy Research, 30(2), 175-183. doi:10.1002/ptr.5524.